Biographyany | President - President Soeharto Biography, Suharto was the second President of the Republic of Indonesia. He was born in Kemusuk, Yogyakarta, on June 8, 1921. His father was a farmer named Kertosudiro well as auxiliary fields irrigation headman in the villag e, while his mother was Sukirah. Suharto entered school when he was eight, but often moving. Originally schooled in the Village School (SD) Scores, Godean. Then move to SD Pedes, because her mother and her husband, Mr. Pramod moving house, to Kemusuk South. However, Mr. Kertosudiro then move it to Wuryantoro. Suharto left at home his sister who is married to Prawirowihardjo, a paramedic farmer.
Until finally chosen as exemplary soldier NCO School, Gombong, Central Java in 1941. He officially became a member of TNI on October 5, 1945. In 1947, Suharto was married to Siti Hartinah Mangkunegaran a young employee.
Marriage Lt. Col. Suharto and Siti Hartinah held on December 26, 1947 in Solo. At that time the age of 26 years and Hartinah Soeharto 24 years. They had six sons and a daughter; Siti Hardiyanti Hastuti, Sigit Harjojudanto, Bambang Trihatmodjo, Siti Hediati Herijadi, Hutomo Mandala Putra and Siti Hutami Endang Adiningsih.
Major General H.M. Soeharto had walked a long way in the military and political career. In the military, Suharto start of KNIL sergeant, then commander of the MAP, the commander of the regiment with the rank of Major and battalion commander Lieutenant Colonel.
In 1949, he successfully led his troops to retake the city of Yogyakarta from the hands of the Dutch at that time. He also served as Commander of the Guards Sudirman. In addition, once the commander Mandala (liberation of West Irian).
Dated October 1, 1965, erupted G-30-S/PKI. Suharto took over the leadership of the Army. Apart confirmed as Army Commander, General Suharto appointed Commander by President Soekarno. In March 1966, General Suharto received a Decree of March 11 of President Soekarno. His job, restore security and order and safeguard the teachings of the Great Leader of the Revolution Bung Karno.
Because of the political situation worsened after the outbreak G-30-S/PKI, MPRS Special Session, March 1967, appointed Soeharto as Acting President, was inaugurated as the second President of Indonesia, in March 1968. Suharto ruled for more than three decades past six elections, until he resigned, May 21, 1998.
After being treated for 24 days at Pertamina Central Hospital, South Jakarta, former president Soeharto finally died on Sunday, January 27, 2006). Suharto died at 13:10 noon at the age of 87 years.
Complete Historical Journey of Life and Sovereignty Soeharto
Haji Muhammad Suharto, called familiar Soeharto, was a big name who led the Republic of Indonesia, for 32 years. An exceptional leadership abilities to be recognized by friends and political opponents (happy or not). He moves with the development strategy of the Development Trilogy (stability, growth and equity). Had even received an award from the FAO on the success of reaching self-sufficiency in food (1985). So, when it's no wonder he was honored as the Father of National Development.
But eventually he had resigned tragically, not solely because of the insistence student demonstration (1998), but rather due to the treachery of the aides who previously ABS and ambitious without fatsoen politics. When he had resigned, there were rumors. If Soeharto heard conscience beloved wife, Ibu Tien Soeharto, who allegedly, had advised him to stop about ten years earlier, kepemimpinnya certainly does not end with blasphemy discredit him as if he'd never do good for the nation and the country.
He was like a lost 'inspiration' and 'friend one heart' after Ibu Tien Soeharto died (Sunday, April 28, 1996). Soeharto's not the only man who feels this way. Many men (leaders) are actually 'strong' because it supported the presence of his wife. One example, Bill Clinton probably will fall prematurely if not supported by his wife, Hillary Clinton.
Soeharto did not immediately find a replacement wife. Loneliness as resolved at the instigation of devotion to the nation and the country. He spent time in the task of weighing as president. Moreover, several aides gave reports and expectations that prompted him to remain as president. In fact, as a servant (minister) BJ Habibie, he could talk for hours. Quite often the staff should provide instant noodles if they are waiting on the meeting.
The people of this nation will remember. After the 1997 election and before the General Session, March 1998, his aides, including Harmoko, as Chairman of Golkar, said it would still nominate HM Soeharto as president 1998-2003. But, precisely on the 33rd anniversary of Golkar, October 1997, HM Soeharto return for verifiable statement: Are people seriously still want to be president?
After a couple of months ago, exactly on January 20, 1998, the three leaders of the Golkar family or commonly called the Three Line Golkar, Golkar which path / Banyan (Harmoko), lane Forces (Feisal Tanjung) and the bureaucracy (Yogie BC), came to Construct Graha expressed wishes of the people re-checking results in the nomination of HM Soeharto as President.
At that time they reported to Soeharto. "That turns out people really only have one candidate for President for the period 1998-2003, namely HM Soeharto," said Harmoko announced to the press after reporting to Soeharto. "The majority of the people of Indonesia are still wants Mr. Haji Muhammad Suharto to be nominated as President the 1998-2003 period," said Harmoko accompanied M Yogie SM and General Feisal Tanjung then.
According Harmoko, General (Ret.) Muhammad H Soeharto, after receiving the results of checking it, states are willing renominated term of office as President 1998-2003. In addition to announcing willingness Soeharto reelected as President, according Harmoko, Golkar family also set out the criteria for candidate Vice President, among others, to understand the science and industry. This statement leads to BJ Habibie.
From the results of checks carried out by the family of Golkar, according Harmoko, Soeharto appreciate the confidence the majority of the people of Indonesia although there must be a sacrifice for the sake of the family. But for the sake of the nation and the state, Haji Muhammad Suharto may not avoid responsibility as a patriot and a warrior nation.
"With the confidence of the people does not make Mr. Haji Muhammad Suharto being 'high glanggang colong playu." It's a term that means Soeharto did not leave the responsibility and circumvent the people's confidence in the interests of the state and the nation, "said Harmoko.
But, it was the beginning of a tragedy and betrayal rolled decay. HM Soeharto was reelected as President in the period 1998-2003 General Session, March 1 to 11, 1998. Accompanied by BJ Habibie as vice president.
However, components of students and various community groups continue to launch demonstrations called for President and Vice President BJ Habibie, Suharto's fall and Golkar dissolved. At that time, President Soeharto still looks certain that the demonstration would recede in the not too distant future. Then in early May 1998, he went to Cairo, Egypt, to attend the Non-aligned Summit. At left, at the airport Halim Perdanakusuma, he released Vice President BJ Habibie, Fangab Feisal Tanjung, also Chief Executive of ICMI Tirto Sudiro and several other ministers some of whom later betrayed him.
Meanwhile, after the death of President Soeharto, a few days later, the tense atmosphere of Jakarta. In addition to the flare due to student demonstrations, also broke the issue occurs something of mystery in the military body. The mystery was tinged direction groupings within the military. In addition to many pro demikrasi 'lost' some where, also issued thousands of military members 'disappeared' from his unit memembawa armor and ammunition.
"What's really happening in Indonesia, is a big question mark that must be resolved. Is a power game being played in Indonesia? Who is playing with the armed groups, as well as how to map the strength of civil movement? It is something that must be analyzed together, "wrote a magazine at the time. Some of the questions that remain mysterious to this day.
Increasingly tense atmosphere, on May 12, 1998, due to the shooting of students at Trisakti University, which became known as the Trisakti Tragedy. Four students were killed. Students makin 'mad'. Nearly all campus demonstrations. Even some coming out of college. Along with that, there was a burning car around the parking lot near Trisakti University.
In fact, May 13, 1998, students like to be fished out of the campus. The situation at the Atma Jaya Catholic University Jakarta invites precisely the question mark. There is a group of demonstrators who threw in college students because they are not out of the campus. The students remain in the campus in mourning.
The next day, May 14, 1998, there was havoc in Jakarta. Chinese citizens were targeted. Shops and shopping centers burned. At that time, such as Jakarta had no security guard. While military officials are in Malang. On the field is felt there is a move provocateur. In some places, there were cries of: "Students come ... mahasiawa come!"
In a chaotic conditions, it appears that students were very observant. Apparently, they avoid kambinghitam made. Since that day, and the next day, no student demonstrations that get out of college. There are even some students who previously participated unusual demonstration, chose not to come home from college than being stuck in a street full crowd.
This situation forced Soeharto to go home sooner than the schedule of Egypt. Before leaving, circulating rumors that he will be confronted by students. But Suharto remained home, no ambush occurs as expected. Before going home, in the presence of Indonesian citizens in Egypt, he states willing to resign if the people so desire. At that time, he insists will not use armed force against the students and the will of the people.
Arriving in Jakarta, HM Suharto then invited several public figures, including Nurcholis Madjid and Abdurrahman Wahid ( Gus Dur ), and Amien Rais without Sasono, to discuss the formation of the Reform Committee. He also plans to reshuffle his cabinet to cabinet Reform. It offers a gradual reforms to prevent turmoil.
He also received a delegation rector of the University of Indonesia. They came to ask President Suharto quit with honor. HM Soeharto invited them to voice it through the Assembly. Student demonstrations were eventually concentrated into building MPR / DPR. They occupied the legislative building.
Harmoko, who was Chairman of the Assembly and other Assembly leaders urge accommodate students requesting Soeharto down. In front of the students, Harmoko states that leaders agreed to urge the Assembly to request Soeharto student retreat. Harmoko as not affected his remarks when asked Soeharto's willingness to be nominated again as president long before the People's Consultative Assembly.
Harmoko statement is then described (denied) Commander Gen. Wiranto as not a statement of an institution but rather a personal statement.
HM Soeharto would continue to closely follow developments. Until the evening of May 20, 1998, it seems that he still believes will be able to resolve the situation peacefully by establishing a committee to reform and remodel cabinet Reform Cabinet. But good intentions are welcomed Soeharto winter walks and even tragically rejected most helpers (ministers) who dibesarkannya.
Apparently this is the last moment he became president. That day, Wednesday, May 20, 1998 around 19:30, Former President Soeharto received at the residence of Vice President Sudharmono Cendana 8 Jakarta. At that time, according to Sudharmono, President Soeharto states will still perform the duties of the presidency and will soon announce the formation of the Reform Committee and Development held a Cabinet reshuffle VII.
About half an hour later, at 20:00, Vice President BJ Habibie facing Soeharto. Then at around 20:30, Saadillah Murshid was asked to meet President Suharto, who was with Vice President BJ Habibie in the living room residence Cendana 8 it. In the presence of Vice President BJ Habibie, Suharto asked Saadillah Mursyid President, Secretary of State, to prepare the final manuscript: Presidential Decree on the Reform Committee and the Presidential Decree on the Establishment of the Cabinet Reform.
At that time, President Suharto has said it will announce and implement the inauguration tomorrow, Thursday, May 21, 1998. For that President Soeharto also called for the ceremonial hall or commonly called the room prepared credentials at the State Palace.
Then Vice President Habibie B.J home. Meanwhile, fourteen ministers make statements not willing to participate in the planned Cabinet Reform Soeharto. They are the ministers who previously brought Soeharto.
Then, around 21:00, after BJ Habibie returned it, please Saadillah Murshid can continue to meet with President Soeharto. On that occasion, Saadillah Murshid reported that a number of people who planned to become a member Reform Committee has stated rejected. Saadillah also report any information that fourteen ministers who planned to sit in the Cabinet Reform states are not willing to participate in the Cabinet. After that, Saadillah home.
But at around 21:40, Saadillah Murshid was asked to meet President Soeharto again. Saadillah rushed into the room in the usual places President receives guests, including ministers receive. Saadillah surprised that the President was not in the room. When prompted, then aide informed him that President Suharto waiting in the den at the private residence.
At approximately 22:15 the day Wednesday, May 20, 1998, the HM Soeharto Saadillah invited to sit next to him. There is only one seat, HM Soeharto sitting there. Then Saadillah welcome shift puff, a square seat, to get closer.
After a short pause, then HM Soeharto said: "Any attempt to save the nation and the country we have done. But apparently God wills others. Clashes between students and the military should not happen. I do not want bloodshed. Therefore, I decided to quit as president, according to Article 8 of the Constitution of 1945. "
Then, the Saadillah as Secretary of State, was asked to prepare four. First, the concept of 'Stop statement from the office of the President'; Second, the leadership of the House of Representatives informed that the request of House leaders to meet and consult with the president will be held today Thursday, May 21, 1998 at 09:00 in room Jepara Merdeka Palace; Third, Vice President BJ Habibie told to appear at the State Palace on Thursday May 21, 1998 at 09:00 and be ready to say Pledge Title President before Chief Justice; Fourth, invoke the presence of the Chief Justice at the Presidential Palace the day Thursday, May 21, 1998 at 09:00.
Saadillah immediately notify the House Leader, Vice-President and Chairman of the Supreme Court over the phone. It was late before midnight. Then, together with staff, Saadillah immediately began drafting Quit Presidential Statement. After getting the points and landing, Bambang Kesowo, then Deputy Secretary of the Cabinet, and Soenarto Soedharmo, when it was Special Assistant to the Secretary of State began compiling the initial concept. While Yusril Ihza Mahendra, when it was Assistant Assistant (Banas) State Secretary, provide input, especially in terms of constitutional law.
Concept developed together, as befits a work of staff. Not the work of individuals. Once the concept was researched and corrected several times, in 0300 before dawn on May 21, 1998 Statement manuscript ready for submission to the President.
Manuscript submitted through is standard procedure at the State Secretariat. The concept that has been submitted to the Adjutant typed. The aide put the manuscript on the President's desk.
The next morning, Thursday, May 21, 1998 around 10:00 am at the Merdeka Palace ceremony room, which is common when it is called space credentials, President Soeharto speeches Stop statement as President of the Republic of Indonesia.
In his speech, President Soeharto inter alia stated: "I have declared plans to establish a Committee on Reform and Development Cabinet rearranged VII. However, the reality today shows Reform Committee will not be realized, due to the absence of a satisfactory response to the planned formation of the Committee. In a desire to implement reforms in a best possible manner, I can not judge that with the accomplishment of the Reform Committee, Development Cabinet reshuffle VII is no longer necessary. "
"Having regard to the above circumstances, I found it very difficult for me to be able to run the government and development tasks well. Therefore, subject to the provisions of Article 8 UUD 1945 and after earnest consideration the views of the House of Representatives leadership and the leadership of the factions in it, I decided to resign from my position as President of the Republic of Indonesia, as from me to read This statement, as of today, Thursday, May 21, 1998. "
After that, accompanied by his eldest daughter, Siti Hardiyanti Rukmana (Sister Tutut) and Saadillah Mursyid, Soeharto left the Istana Merdeka waved back to the residence on Jalan Cendana 8. When they arrived at the residence, before sitting in the living room, Soeharto held up both hands and say: "Allahu Akbar. Remove the load is life lay on my shoulder for decades. "Then the sons and family greeted him.
After that, Soeharto became the butt of scorn and blasphemy. Not only from people who had previously not in line with President Soeharto, but more so than the ministers and the Golkar figures that had not shy away from doing a variety of ways to get close. Even BJ Habibie who claims raised Soeharto also appear without political fatsoen take the attitude that in politics there is no eternal friendship, only eternal kepentinganlah.
They did not hesitate to reposition Soeharto family and sandalwood like trash. Dumping all that dirty. That all the filth in the New Order era heaped on the shoulders of President Soeharto and his family. Apparently, HM Soeharto and his family as the only corruption of the era.
HM Soeharto was 'exiled' from the Golkar dibesarkannya. Golkar elites instead of the first shouted that Suharto was arrested for the crimes alleged during the reigns. Golkar previously more didonimasi seem to shift military influence over elites dominated ICMI (Indonesian Muslim Intellectuals Association).
A tragedy tendentious constitutional, political subjectivity thick colored ensued. Assembly Special Session on 13 November 1998 - which is still dominated by the power of the Assembly Golkar 1997 election results - MPR set No.XI/MPR/1998. Article 4 MPR decree reads: "Efforts to eradicate corruption, collusion and nepotism must be carried out strictly against any person, whether state officials, former officials, family and cronies and private parties / conglomerate including former President Suharto with due regard to the principle of presumption of guilty of human rights. "
The mention of names of people explicitly - former President Suharto - in this article seem tendentious, absurd and highly colored nature of political subjectivity and outside the constitutional system of the prevalence of Indonesia. Should not an MPR format is general lines of a state policy? And so, as if positioned this article only applies to former President Soeharto, but not for the other former presidents.
Apparently, that's the peak of betrayal several former ministers and elite dibesarkannya Golkar. Although Soeharto never said explicitly that they are betrayed. But the attitude that to this day has not been willing to accept a visit BJ Habibie and several former ministers and other Golkar elites can be understood as an indication of the various parties in that direction.
Soeharto also showed grit and determination. He also finally got around to stand trial on charges of corruption, misuse of funds, foundations, which he founded. He stated that the foundation is willing to account for the funds. But, he fell sick that the proceedings terminated.
Soeharto Biography - Second President Of Republik Indonesia
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