Gus Dur (the familiar name of KH Abdurrahman Wahid) was born on August 4, 1940 at Denanyar Jombang, the first child of six children (five brothers Gus Dur sequence is `Aisha" Ny. Hj. `Aisha Hamid Baidlawi", Sholahuddin "Ir. Sholahuddin H. Wahid, "Umar" dr. H. Umar Wahid ", Khodijah and Hashim" Wahid Hashim HM "). His father, K.H. Abdul Wahid Hashim, was the son of K.H. Ash `ari Hashim, founder Tebuireng boarding school and founder of Jam` iyah Nahdlatul Ulama (NU), the largest organization in Indonesia, perhaps even in the world. His mother, Mrs. Hj sholehah, also daughter of the great NU, KH Bisri Syansuri, founder boarding Denanyar Jombang and advisory PBNU. With Rois Aam `so genetically, Gus Dur was blue-blood ancestry and according to Clifford Geertz's terms, he considered students and aristocracy as well.
Gus Dur, both father and mother of the clan is a person who occupies a high social strata of Indonesian society, he is the grandson of two prominent scholars and great men of the nation NU Indonesia. More than that Gus Dur was a descendant of UB IV (Ox Peteng) via two pathways, namely Ki Ageng Tarub I and Joko Tingkir.
Nevertheless, the journey does not reflect the lives of Gus Dur's life Ningrat. She proceeds and live like people in general.
Gus Dur childhood studying in boarding school Tebuireng Jombang, at the age of five years, he was well read al-Qur `an. His teacher at that time was his own grandfather, K.H. Ash `ari Hashim. Gus Dur small unlike most kids his age, he does not live with his father, but it was with his grandfather. While in the house that her grandfather Gus Dur little getting to know the world of politics, of the people who every day back and forth at his grandfather's house.
In the end, Gus Dur had moved to Jakarta, when his father was appointed as the Minister of Religious Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia, namely in 1950, five years after Indonesia Merdeka.Gus Dur had completed elementary school in Jakarta.
To add to his knowledge of Gus Dur was sent to attend courses prescribed by the choice of her parents, like private lessons and by the Dutch master Willem Buhl offered classical music interlude barat.Buku, football, chess, music and movies are five things never out of the figure Gus Dur as a child.
At small Gus Dur had dreams of becoming a soldier, entered the military academy. However, the ideal has failed, because at the age of 14, he had to wear glasses minus. Hose shipwreck of his goals, to make the spirit of Gus Dur "crazy" in the struggle with the book, ball, chess, music and movies. In the end Gus Dur was a kid when it redefined its goals are very simple, a Teacher! "I just wanted to be a teacher of the nation, such as Ki Hajar, Mangunsarkoro Ki, Kiai My grandfather Hashim, and so forth," he said once.
After graduating from elementary school in Jakarta, Wahid continued to SMEP at Tanah Abang Jakarta, but after a year, he moved to Yogyakarta Gowongan SMEP. His mother hopes his move to Yogya apart so he could escape from the old neighborhood in Jakarta, is also back on his background as the son of kiai: approaching the boarding school.
In truth, Gus Dur had experienced students or boarding education and religiosity of both parents. He learned Arabic as a child and have sufficient knowledge to be able to recite the Qur'an aloud. After a teenager he was systematically studied Arabic.
When Gus Dur SMEP school in Yogyakarta, well cultivated and arranged how he was able to go to boarding school in Al-Munawwir Krapyak three times. Here he studied Arabic K.H. Ali Ma `sum.
In the city Jogjalah reading and thirst for knowledge Gus Dur emerging and increasingly sped away. Jogja is a student city, with the presence of universities and many bookstores, or books owned network of teachers or teachers themselves, or belonged to the father of boarding. From where Gus Dur having a love of books and frequenting book stores regularly. In this city also liked Gus dur puppet show. Besides old habits like watching movies once a routine that never left.
After completing school in SMEP Yogyakarta in 1957, Wahid moved to Magelang Tegalrejo boarding school under the tutelage of a charismatic scholars, scholars Khudori, from where Gus Dur fully studied scientific pesantren along.
At the same time, for two years Gus Dur also studying part-time at the boarding school Denanyar Jombang under the guidance of his maternal grandfather, Bisri Syansuri.setelah Kiai Wahid went to boarding lodge Rice Pond, under the tutelage of Kiai Wahab Hasbullah, from boarding This relationship Abdurrahman and Wahab Hasbullah so thick, that he received encouragement to proceed in the learning stage, even Gus Dur been head madrasah Modern. Of interest in this pesantren Wahid began to grow, not only in the study of Islamization, but are interested in the study and the mystical Sufi tradition of Islamic culture and traditions. This was the beginning of a habit of Gus Dur's frequent visits to the tombs of saints, scholars, and scholars at midnight.
Gus Dur eventually completed his studies he wrestled in Indonesia and then continue the process of learning abroad. As of offspring, Gus Dur was from a family that thirst for knowledge, so naturally when Gus Dur had continued his studies until overseas.
Early study abroad, in the year 1964-1969. Gus Dur entry in the Department of Higher Islamic and Arabic Studies, Al-Azhar Islamic University, Cairo Egypt.
Gus Dur learning journey in Egypt is not as smooth and easy as running, because it should be hampered by the administration to the recognition of diplomas and courses that have been learned in Indonesia.
Gus Dur was a lot in lessons repeated while studying in Egypt, so he was so reluctant to undertake formal study and often do not go to college. This is where he used to channel his hobby follow football games, reading in libraries are great, watch French films, and participate in discussions in the coffee shops are very menarik.Dengan such conditions, it seems to make Gus Dur was a bit disappointed and bored, so he decided to get out of Al-Azhar and moved to Baghdad.
Later in the year 1970-1972 Gus Dur moved lecture at the Faculty of Letters, University of Baghdad, where Gus Dur Irak.Di have a pretty tight schedule, ranging from focusing on research on the history of Islam in Indonesia and he was given the easy access to the implementation stage of the research. He also learned French in this city, which is often not forgotten grave pilgrimage to the tombs of the world and sharpen homeroom mystical science. Abdurrahman Wahid remains, though no longer conduct discussions in the coffee shop, due to the tight schedule but he took time to watch a movie.
After completing his studies in the Middle East, Gus Dur and then moved to Europe to continue his graduate studies. At first Gus Dur live in the Netherlands and wants into the University of Leiden, but that occurs in several European universities, including Leiden may not receive a graduate of the University of Baghdad. Gus Dur was disappointed with this, to reduce the burden of disappointment he wandered for a year in Europe and in mid-1971, Gus Dur back to Indonesia.
Upon his return from Europe to Indonesia, Gus Dur was still not discouraged to pursue their studies to the European countries, finally he get a scholarship to McGill, but so intent was stuck but nevertheless happen, because need to make the wedding reception. Then after that Gus Dur living in Jombang and initiated steps to find a format change had to do with a way around the "friendship" of Java, which will make Gus Dur really thought better to continue his studies abroad.
Gus Dur as a student tour in Europe, learning from one university to another, eventually was settled in the Netherlands and founded the Muslim Students Association of Indonesia and Malaysia are living in Europe.
During his studies abroad Gus Dur also had a rough time at work, when in Egypt he had got a job at the Indonesian embassy to Egypt, and then when he worked in Baghdad in Ar-Ramadhani, the company mengkhususnya textile imports from Europe and America, when in Europe he also worked in the laundry owned Cina.ketika settled in the Netherlands Gus Dur twice a month to go to the port to work as a cleaner of the tanker.
A variety of science and every process in independence, a Gus Dur to penetrate the boundaries of reasonable humanity, even an attempt to be independent in his life he was capable.
That's the story of Gus Dur seek knowledge, in addition to informal teacher as powerful, it could be Gus Dur was also given a gift by God so that they can quickly understand a reading and had an incredible memory will text. Perhaps that is the basis for a potential future leader.
In proceed to build and foster home Gus Dur, arguably quite unique, its introduction in Jombang as teacher and student then passes a short distance away, Gus Dur in Cairo and Nuriyah in Jombang. initially for several years in cairo, Wahid continued to contact Nuriayah through regular correspondence was ultimately accepted the Gus Dur Nuriyah as his friend to hold the engagement during the period of two years, after that Gus Dur was married Nuriyah.
Gus Dur was blessed with four daughters, they are, Alissa Qotrunnada, Zannuba Arifah Chafsoh, Anita Hayatunnufus and Inayah Wulandari. In educating his son Gus Dur also always apply the practice of democracy, not authoritarianism towards the problems faced by children, Gus Dur just aim and suggestions with all the consequences of the various choices.
The period of the struggle for a very long indeed Gus Dur, started but not the start he wanted, the process flow starting from the day are in Indonesia to overseas was doing, ranging from teaching, became head of madrassas, in charge of many activities in foreign countries, a social commentator by writing in various print media, NGOs engaged in the scope LP3ES, NU chairman, to become President of the 4th. Gus Dur awareness of the movement to find the ideal change is strong enough, he was very anti-violence, strong, tough and consistent.
Gus Dur was suffering from many diseases, even before serving as president until later, he experienced illness such as stroke, diabetes and more. Gus Dur passed away on Wednesday, December 30, 2009, in hospital Madura, Jakarta, at 18:45 pm, due to her illness for a long time.
Gus Dur's death coincided with the 27th anniversary of his youngest daughter, Inayah Wulandari, who was born on 31 December 1982, during Gus Dur treated at the RSCM hospital, including one daughter Inayah Gus Dur's most diligent in keeping Gus Dur.
According to the story, K.H. Salahudin Wahid, who fondly called Sholah he met his brother Gus, Gus Dur in Jombang last time, a week before his death, that Gus Dur while on a pilgrimage to the tomb of the family, then Gus Sholah already have a bad premonition. Gus Sholah was shocked and surprised when Gus Dur said, 'Brother, 31, jemputen Mengko Kene I win! (Dik, I'll pick at 31 here), and so are many stories commemorate before and after the death of Abdurrahman Wahid died many are aware that Gus Dur already know the time of his death. Hopefully he deeds accepted by Allah SWT.
That's what happened to the figure of Gus Dur, his power only certain people who knew even he could hide it well, without the need to know a lot of people. Now if we observe, many people who mourn the grave like the tombs of the Wali Allah "Wali Songo", a lot of people feel lost, mourn his departure. He was only a few spiritual teachers among Muslims, as well as among different religions in Indonesia and in the World.
His worksIntellectual works Gus Dur since the early 1970s until the late 1990s, the intellectual work is scattered in various forms of writing and can be classified as follows, in the form of a total of 12 books, 1 book translations, 20 in his preface, 1 epilogue book, 41 anthology books, 105 articles in the form of columns, 50 papers, 263 articles were scattered in various magazines, newspapers, journals, and the media.
|Abdurrohman Wahid And Soeharto|
The following list of works in the course of his career and struggles Gus Dur:
- Madrasah teachers Mu `allimat, Jombang (1959-1953)
- University Lecturer Ash `ari Hashim, Jombang (1972-1974)
- Dean of the Faculty Ushuludin Ash `ari Hashim University, Jombang (1972-1974)
- Secretary Pesantren Tebuireng, Jombang (1974-1979)
- Caregivers Ciganjur Boarding School, Jakarta (1976-2009)
- Founder and member of FORDEM (Democracy Forum), 1990.
- NU (NU) NU Awwal scribes 1980-1984, Chairman of the board Tanfidz NU, 1994-2000.
- Founder PKB (National Awakening Party)
- P3M (Centre for Development and Community Empowerment Pesantren)
- Founder of The Wahid Institute.
- Moral Movement of National Reconciliation, 2003, as an advisor.
- Solidarity with victims of human rights violations, 2002, as an adviser.
- Indonesian Film Festival, 1986-1987, as a jury.
- Chairman of the Jakarta Arts Council, 1982-1985.
- Youth Association of Indonesian Students in Cairo Egypt, 1965, as vice chairman.
- Non Violence Peace Movement, Seoul, South Korea President, 2003-until he died.
- International Strategic Dialogue Center, University of Netanya, Israel.
- International board member with Mikhail Gorbachev, Ehud Barak and carl bild, 2003-until he died.
- International Islamic Christian Organisation for Reconciliation and Reconstrukction (IICORR), London, England. As honorary president, 2003-until he died.
- International and Interreligious Federation for World Peace (IIFWP). New York, United States. International advisory board member. 2002-until he died.
- Association of Muslim Community Leaders (AMCL), New York, United States, President, 2002.
- Shimon Peres Center for Peace, Tel Aviv, Israel. Founders and members. 1994-until he died.
- World Conference on Religion and Peace (WCRP), New York, United States, President, 1994-1998.
- International dialogue project for area studies and law, den Hag, the Netherlands, as an advisor, 1994.
- The Aga Khan Award for Islamic Architecture, jury, 1980-1983.
With his perseverance in the fight and his thoughts on humanity both in Indonesia and in the world to get a lot of Gus Dur honors from various organizations and received numerous awards from various local, national and international levels.
Then Gus Dur also recognized capacity in academic circles that a few times a degree from various universities.
His thoughtsGus Dur did have a pretty unique idea and clear. Arguably his mind is able to pass his time, because a lot of people must think out loud what a thought. He is also known to be very controversial.
Gus Mus called Gus Dur as a lesson thinking of God, to date, must have-or never-no one can compete with Gus Dur in collecting many nicknames. Breadth social Gus Dur and attention will undoubtedly play an important role in the collection of the surname. Those who see how Gus Dur as 'fanatical' and persistent adjust his attitude to the word of God "Walaqod karramna banii Adama ..." (Q. 17:70), might be dubbed a humanist. Those who see it as 'devout' and persistent follow in the footsteps of parents and grandfather in love my homeland, might be dubbed nationalists, those who see it as a person who has a high spiritual qualities, perhaps would call him a saint. And so on.
The struggle of thought Gus Dur able to pass all kinds of disciplines, ranging from religion, philosophy, mysticism, grammar, culture and art, humor, democracy, pluralism, humanism, nationalism. With brilliant ideas, thought Gus Dur to become a social commentator who can make many people nervous and aware that especially the current administration.
Gus Dur's intellectual development was formed by classical Islamic education and modern western education. These factors are a prerequisite for him to develop his ideas. In activities related to travel, read, and debating ideas, Gus Dur synthesizing both worlds education. Maybe he was doing it more complete than the majority of intellectuals in Indonesia, which then makes Gus Dur became part of the new movement in Islamic thought in Indonesia. Emphasis thought Gus Dur more hinted at things more substantial, it teaches us to always tolerant, open, and inclusive.
According to Greg Barton, thought Gus Dur, he was one of the scholars categorize the Neo-Modernist. Among digolongkannya intellectual character in the Neo-modernist understanding that in many heirs to the teachings of Islam Muhammad Abduh in rationalism ijtihad is contextual. Trying to load the synthesis between the classical repertoire with having ijtihad, and appreciative with western ideas, especially in the social sciences and humanities. Neo-Modernist is promoting understanding of Islam that is open, inclusive, especially in accepting the factual reality of pluralism society, tend to emphasize tolerance and harmony in the relationship between communities.
Gus Dur flexibility in constructing his mind can not be denied. As well as about the "Indonesia" should diislamkan, Gus Dur was clearly questioned this concept, which drafted him in the Islamic countries do not have the clarity format. The Prophet left Medina without any clarity about the form of government for Muslims. Of an Islamic state that some people thought it just looked out of the corner of institutional Islam alone. As long as there is no clarity on the above, actually vain filed the claim that Islam has a concept of statehood.
Then Gus Dur successfully resolve conflicts between state and society, which in the new order is too strong or authoritarian state, while the society is too weak. He is with the thinking and the development of social movements successfully reducing the state authoritarianism and successful at the same time empower them with the advent of the power of civil society (civil society). Gus Dur's struggle for democracy to the country, it is not a secret that many people know and recognize. Thought about Indonesia Abdurrahman aspired to be a country that is a democracy that has little influence on the military and no fundamentalism in religion. For him in this modern life can unite diverse demokrasilah tendency toward the forces of the nation. Democracy is so important in a pluralistic country because it turned the whole Bohemian nationalism can only be achieved in a democratic atmosphere and grow despite the current democracy in Indonesia is still a process of discussion, but one day will achieve real democracy.
Gus Dur as one of his people who first mensuarakan back to the idea of indigenization of Islam. With a sense that it is a manifestation of life dipribumikan Islam not core doctrine concerning faith and formal worship. It was not an effort to avoid the emergence of resistance of local cultural forces, but rather that the culture is not lost. It has been done the pioneer missionary "wali Songo" in the process of Islamization in Indonesia. It can be seen that Gus Dur's thoughts and movements are not much different from the trustees could be called Sufis.
Gus Dur unite and religious culture, he says, religion "Islam" and cultures have their independence, but both have overlapping territories. Humans can not be religion without culture, because culture is human creativity can be one form of expression of diversity. But it can not be concluded that religion is culture. Between the two overlap and complement each other but still have differences. Religion rooted in revelation and has its own norms. Religious norms are normative, so he tends to be permanent. Whereas culture is human creativity, so he developed in accordance with the times and tend to always change. This difference does not preclude the possibility of manifestation of religious life in the form of culture. Perspective thus put religion in its function as a vehicle for the nation's aegis tradition and at the same time makes kehidupaan nation religion as a vehicle for his maturation.
Gus Dur also known as a humorous figure. Thinking and critical attitude towards the reality of life is often conveyed through humor, so that agrees or not both laugh. He even equated with the Greek philosopher, Socrates, who likes to throw humoristis comments. Resistance Gus Dur did not know probably a lot of people, that in fact he was having a massive change and criticism are conveyed through jokes.
In the international world of thought Gus Dur also received many intellectuals the world. Even many who are doing research specifically on the pattern and style of thinking. Not surprising also when various awards obtained from international Gus Dur.
Gus Dur is the most genuin representation of two continuous cultures survive and thrive in the NU. The first is the culture of the pesantren kiai with NU little universe. The second is a youth culture that marked NU NU convergence with the modern world. He also built his thinking as a social movement that can intelligently put NU in a strategic position. Through NU also Gus Dur massive change and fundamental to the NU itself and the nation.
Thought Gus Dur has a Sufi flavor strength. Like the idea of God does not need to be defended, he said bahwasannya, Al-Hujwiri said, if you think God is just because you are formulating, essentially you have become an infidel. God does not need to be sad that "He troublesome" us. Also do not need to be defended when people attack his nature, which in turn is the fear of human perception on the nature of God, with the possible difficulties they cause. Gus Dur decorate and run the mind as well as the teacher congregation.
In spiritual thought Gus Dur can be called a true Sufi. He is forgiving, even though the enemy is evil though. Though mocked for defending non-Muslim he was patient and calm, never will against anyone, never fear anything, willingly, without strings attached, and so the mencorakkan Gus Dur on the Sufi. A Sufi always combine hard work and total surrender to God. Gus Dur is considered the guardian "Sufi" in the eyes of his followers and those persecuted. Thinking, advocacy and Gus Dur struggle throughout his life, shows that it has the properties of a guardian, or debate without having to be forced to be called a guardian.
Gus Dur has indeed become an interesting and unique phenomenon, especially in the arena of Islamic thought in Indonesia even factored in political discourse. in the meantime, he was able to hold a massive change in the Nahdliyyin. Making him as a footstool consulted, complaints, and search for information, sometimes also held the blessing of the various parties and walks of life. Gus Dur apparently no longer a figure, he has become a symbol or even a myth. For Gus Dur a known level of success will figure prominently in promoting the people, if the products can be perceived ijtihad its implications for the dynamics of the society, nation and state.
AppreciationIn 1993, Wahid received a Ramon Magsaysay Award, an award for the category of the prestigious Community Leadership.Wahid cited as the "Father of Chinese" by some Chinese figures Semarang in Tay Kak Sie temple, Gang Lombok, which is known as the Chinatown neighborhood in March 10 2004.Ia received an award from the Simon Wiesenthal Center, a foundation that is engaged in the enforcement of human rights. Wahid was awarded the prize because they think he is one of the leaders who care about human rights issues.
Gus Dur gain an appreciation of Valor Mebal with offices in Los Angeles because Wahid considered to have the courage to defend the minority, one in defense of religious Confucianism in Indonesia to obtain their rights that had stuck during the era of order baru.Wahid also received an award from Temple University . His name is immortalized as the name of the study group Abdurrahman Wahid Chair of Islamic study. On July 21, 2010, despite having died, he received the Lifetime Achievement Award in AP 6 2010.Penghargaan Awards were handed directly to Sinta Nuriyah, wife of Gus Dur.
On August 11, 2006, Girl Arivia and Gus Dur get Tasrif Award-AJI as Freedom Fighters Press, 2006. The award is given by the Alliance of Independent Journalists (AJI). Gus Dur and the girl judged to have passion, vision, and commitment in the fight for freedom of expression, equal rights, the spirit of diversity, and democracy in Indonesia. Gus Dur and girls selected by a jury consisting of cultural Butet Kertaradjasa, chief editor of The Jakarta Post Endy Bayuni, and Chairman of the National Commission for Women Chandra Kirana. They beat out 23 other candidates. Appreciation Award to Gus Dur Tasrif protests from the journalists who attended the press conference. A reporter said that only because of the efforts of Gus Dur and Porno action against Anti-Pornography Bill, he received the award. While other journalists like Ati Nurbaiti, former Chairman and journalists AJI Indonesia The Jakarta Post denied and questioned the relationship Wahid struggle against the bill APP with press freedom.
Gus Dur also widely holds an Honorary Doctorate (Doctor Honoris Causa) from various educational institutions:
- Honorary Doctorate in Philosophy of Law from Thammasat University, Bangkok, Thailand (2000)
- Honorary Doctorate from the Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand (2000)
- Honorary Doctorate of Law and Political Science, Economics and Management, Humanities and Sciences of the University Pantheon Sorbonne, Paris, France (2000)
- Honorary Doctorate from Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand (2000)
- Honorary Doctorate from the University of Twente, The Netherlands (2000)
- Honorary Doctorate from Jawaharlal Nehru University, India (2000)
- Honorary Doctorate from the University of Soka Gakkai, Tokyo, Japan (2002)
- Honorary Doctorate from the University Prize for Humanitarianism, Netanya, Israel (2003)
- Honorary Doctor of Law from Konkuk University, Seoul, South Korea (2003)
- Honorary Doctorate from Sun Moon University, Seoul, South Korea (2003)