Hitler was a veteran of World War I with a lot of titles. He joined the German Workers' Party (NSDAP predecessor) in 1919, and became chairman of the NSDAP in 1921. In 1923, he staged a coup in the event known as the Munich Beer Hall Putsch. The failed coup led to the arrest of Hitler. In prison, Hitler wrote his memoir, Mein Kampf (My Struggle). After his release in 1924, Hitler had the support of the people by criticizing the Treaty of Versailles and uphold Pan-Jermanisme, antisemitism and anti-communism with charismatic speeches and Nazi propaganda. Once appointed as chancellor in 1933, he changed the Weimar Republic into the Third Reich, a one-party dictatorship based on the totalitarian ideologies of Nazism and autocratic.
Hitler's goal was to establish a New Order of absolute Nazi German hegemony in continental Europe. Until then, foreign policy and the country aims to achieve Lebensraum ("living space") for the Germanic. He ordered the German armed back and Wehrmacht invaded Poland in September 1939, led to the outbreak of World War II in Europe. Under the rule of Hitler, German troops in 1941 and its European allies occupied most of Europe and North Africa. In 1943, Germany was forced to defend himself and suffered a series of defeats in battle. In the final days of the war, during the Battle of Berlin took place in 1945, Hitler married his old lover, Eva Braun. On 30 April 1945, less than two days later, the two committed suicide to avoid arrest Red Army, and their corpses were burned.
Hitler's policies were motivated by racial supremacists and resulted in the deaths of around 50 million people during World War II, including 6 million Jews and 5 million ethnic "non-Aryans" were systematic destruction ordered by Hitler and his closest associates.
Childhood and Education
Adolf Hitler was born on 20 April 1889 at the Gasthof zum Pommer, an inn in the Salzburger Vorstadt 15, Braunau am Inn, Austria-Hungary. He was the fourth of six children of Alois Hitler and Klara pair Polzl (1860-1907). Brother and sister Hitler - Gustav, Ida, and Otto - died in infancy. When Hitler was three years old, the family moved to Passau, Germany. There he learned the dialect Bayern Downstream, instead of German Austria, which is the typical life style of speech. In 1894, the family moved again to Leonding (near Linz), and in June 1895, Alois settled on a small plot of land in Hafeld, near Lambach, where he was farming and beekeeping. Adolf attend school in the neighboring town, Fischlham. Hitler started like studying war after finding a picture book about the Franco-Prussian War his father.
Hafeld their migration to the start of a father-son conflict was intense due to Adolf refuses to comply with strict regulations in school. Alois Hitler's farming efforts at Hafeld failed and in 1897 they moved to Lambach. Hitler was 8 years old singing lessons, singing with the church choir, and even semapt consider myself to be a pastor. In 1898, the family moved permanently to Leonding. Death of his brother, Edmund, due to smallpox on February 2, 1900 greatly affected the lives of Hitler. He went from a confident figure, outgoing, and smart, a kid moody, withdrawn, sullen and often quarreled with his father and his teacher.
Alois had a successful career in the customs bureau and wanted his son to follow in his footsteps. Hitler later dramatized an event when Hitler's father took him to the customs office, calling the events that arouse antagonism mercilessly between father and son, who both are equally eager. Ignoring his son's wishes to classical high school and become an artist, Alois sent Adolf to the Realschule in Linz in September 1900. (This is the same high school who later entered Adolf Eichmann 17 years later.) Hitler rejected this decision, and in Mein Kampf, Hitler said that he did poorly in school, hoping that once his father saw "what little progress I made in school technique, he would let me pursue my dreams. "
Hitler was obsessed with German nationalism since I was young. He showed his loyalty to Germany, hated Habsburg monarchy an increasingly chaotic and administration in the occupied various ethnic empire. Hitler and his friends used the word German greeting "Heil", and sang the German anthem "Deutschland Über Alles" instead of the Austrian Imperial anthem.
After the sudden death of Alois on January 3, 1903, Hitler's achievement in school deteriorated. His mother allowed Hitler quit school in the fall of 1905. He attended the Realschule in Steyr in September 1904; behavior and improved performance. In the fall of 1905, after passing supplementary exams and final exams, Hitler left school without any desire to continue their education or build a career.
Adolescence in Vienna and Munich
Since 1905, Hitler bohemian life in Vienna financed by orphan support and help from his mother. He worked as an ordinary laborer, and a painter who sells watercolor paintings. Academy of Fine Arts Vienna twice rejected Hitler, namely in 1907 and 1908, due to "unsuitable paint". Director of the academy suggested that Hitler studied architecture, but he did not meet academic requirements. On December 21, 1907, his mother died at the age of 47. Having rejected the Academy for the second time, Hitler ran out of money. In 1909, he was living in a homeless shelter, and in 1910, he settled in a house in Meldemannstraße working poor. When Hitler tinggla there, Vienna is a place full of religious prejudice and racism. Concerns that Vienna will be met immigrants from Eastern widespread, and the populist mayor, Karl Lueger, exploiting antisemitic rhetoric for political gain. Antisemitism pan-Germanic Georg Schönerer strong support Mariahilf district, where Hitler lived. Hitler read the local newspapers, such as the Deutsches Volksblatt, burn that fuel prejudice and fear Christians who fear driven by the influx of Jewish immigrants from the east. Rejecting what he called "Jermanofobia" Catholic, he began to like Martin Luther.
The origin and when Hitler showed antisemitismenya difficult to trace. Hitler said in Mein Kampf that turned into an anti-Semitic Vienna. Her best friend, August Kubizek, claimed that Hitler was an "anti-Semitic official" before leaving Linz. Testimony Kubizek challenged by historian Brigitte Hamann, who wrote that Kubizek was the only person who says that the young Hitler was an anti-Semitic. Hamann also wrote that there is no anti-Semitic statements coming out of the mouth of Hitler at that time. Historian Ian Kershaw argued that if Hitler never said that, his word is not known as anti-Semitism in Vienna was unusual at the time. A number of sources provide strong evidence that Hitler had Jewish friends in the inn and other places in Vienna. Historian Richard J. Evans states that "historians now agree that a well-known anti-Semitismenya emerged after the defeat of Germany [World War I], as a side effect of the answer paranoid 'betrayal' of the event."
Hitler inherited the last part of the estate of his father in May 1913 and moved to Munich. Historians believe he came from Vienna to avoid conscription into the Austrian army. Hitler later claimed that he did not want to serve in the Habsburg Empire as mixing "races" within the army. After he was declared fit for duty-failed physical tests in Salzburg on February 5, 1914-he returned to Munich.
World War 1
When World War I broke out, Hitler is a resident of the city of Munich and voluntarily serving in the Army as an Austrian citizen Bayern. Placed on Reserve Infantry Regiment Bayern 16 (Regiment Group-1), Hitler's role as messengers at the Western Front in France and Belgium, to spend almost half of their time behind the front line. He was involved in the First Battle of Ypres, the Battle of the Somme, the Battle of Arras, and the Battle of Passchendaele, and was wounded at the Somme.
Hitler with fellow soldiers from the 16th Bavarian Reserve Infantry Regiment (c. 1914-1918)
He was awarded the Iron Cross, Second Class, in 1914 for his bravery. Since suggested Hugo Gutmann, Hitler received the Iron Cross, First Class, on August 4, 1918, a rare accolade pinned on the rank of someone like Hitler (Gefreiter). Work regimental headquarters Hitler, the full interacting with senior officers, it might help him get this award. Although the action is considered daring, but still can not be called very commendable. Hitler also received the Wound Badge Black on May 18, 1918.
During duty at headquarters, Hitler developed his artistic talent by drawing cartoons and instructions for an army newspaper. At the Battle of the Somme in October 1916, he was wounded in the thigh or calf left by a grenade that exploded in the trenches messengers. Hitler spent almost two months in the Red Cross hospital in Beelitz, then returned to his regiment on 5 March 1917. On October 15, 1918, Hitler was temporarily blinded due to mustard gas attack and had lodged in hospital Pasewalk. There, Hitler knew the defeat of Germany, and after getting the news, he admitted blind again.
Adolf Hitler was a soldier in the First World War (1914-1918)
Hitler became irritated by the German war effort failed and therefore also the development of ideology slowly formed. He called World War I as "the greatest experience of a lifetime" and he was praised by his commanding officer for his bravery. This experience reinforces patriotism against Germany and he was surprised by the German surrender in November 1918. Like many other German nationalists, he believed the Dolchstoßlegende (legend of betrayal), which claims that the German army "undefeated in the field" had been "stabbed in the back" on the domestic front by civilian leaders and Marxists, later dubbed " November criminals ".
The Treaty of Versailles stressed that Germany must return the number of occupied territory and mendemiliterisasi Rhineland. This agreement and the economic sanctions imposed heavy reparations on Germany. Many Germans view these agreements-particularly Article 231 which calls Germany are responsible for all the war-as an attempt to embarrass Germany. Treaty of Versailles and the economic, social, and political development in postwar Germany later exploited by Hitler for political interests
World War 2
The first diplomatic success
Alliance with Japan
Austria and Czechoslovakia
On 12 March 1938, Hitler declared unification of Austria with Nazi Germany in the Anschluss program. Hitler then turned his attention to the ethnic German population in the district of the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia.
28-29 March 1938, Hitler held a series of secret meetings in Berlin with Konrad Henlein of Heimfront (Front of Home Affairs) Sudeten, the party of ethnic Germans in the Sudetenland. They agreed that Henlein asking for greater autonomy for the Sudeten German population to the government of Czechoslovakia, thus giving legitimacy for military action, Germany to Czechoslovakia. In April 1938, Henlein told the foreign minister Hungary that "whatever the Czech government offered, he would always ask for higher ... he wanted to sabotage an understanding with any sense because this is the only way to break up Czechoslovakia quickly". In private, Hitler considered Sudeten issue unimportant; desire is actually waging a war of conquest against Czechoslovakia.
In April, Hitler asked OKW prepare for Fall Grün ("Case Green"), code invasion of Czechoslovakia. Due to diplomatic pressure barrage of France and Britain, on September 5, Czechoslovakian President Edvard Benes launched the "Fourth Plan" for constitutional reorganization of his country to approve most requests for autonomy Sudeten.Heimfront Henlein Henlein Benes responded to the offer with a series of riots against police Czechoslovakia and led to the imposition of martial law in a number of Sudeten districts.
Germany relies on imported oil; confrontation with Britain over the disputed Czechoslovakia Germany will reduce the supply of oil. Hitler cancel Fall Grün, originally planned was held on October 1, 1938. On 29 September, Hitler, Neville Chamberlain, Edouard Daladier and Benito Mussolini held a one-day conference in Munich and the Munich Agreement which contains the producing districts surrender the Sudetenland to Germany.
Jewish shops destroyed in Magdeburg post-Kristallnacht (November 1938)
Chamberlain satisfied with the Munich conference and called it "Peace to the present", while Hitler was angered by losing the opportunity to fight in 1938, and he expressed his dissatisfaction in a speech on 9 October in Saarbrücken. In view of Hitler, who helped Britain's peace, despite satisfy German demands, was a diplomatic defeat that thwart his desire to limit the power of Britain to pave the way to the eastern expansion of Germany. Because the meeting was also elected Hitler as Man of the Year Time magazine in 1938.
In late 1938 and early 1939, the continuing economic crisis caused by Hitler's rearmament forcing massive budget cuts. In his "Export or die" on January 30, 1939, he requested the attack in order to enhance economic German foreign exchange holdings to purchase raw materials such as high-quality steel for military weapons.
On March 15, 1939, violated the Munich Agreement and may be a result of the economic crisis emphasized the need for an additional assets, Hitler ordered the Wehrmacht invaded Prague and proclaimed Bohemia and Moravia a German protectorate from Prague Castle.
The outbreak of World War II
In private discussions in 1939, Hitler declared Britain as the main enemy to defeat and destruction of Poland is a necessary prerequisite for achieving these goals. The east side will be secured and the land included in the German Lebensraum. Offended by the "guarantee" of Polish independence by Britain on March 31, 1939, Hitler said, "I have to make the demon drink for them." In a speech in Wilhelmshaven at the launch event battleship Tirpitz on 1 April, he threatened to cancel the Agreement of England-Germany if Britain continues to guarantee the independence of Poland, which he saw as a policy of "encirclement". Poland will be a German satellite state or neutralized to secure the Reich's eastern side and prevent possible British blockade. Hitler initially chose the idea of a satellite state, but because the Polish government refused, he decided to invade Poland and make it the main goal of its foreign policy in 1939. On 3 April, Hitler ordered the military preparing for Fall Weiss ("Case White"), which is planned invasion of Poland on August 25. In a speech in the Reichstag on 28 April, Hitler cancel the Sea Treaty English-German Non-Aggression Pact and the German-Polish. In August, Hitler told his generals that was originally planned for 1939, is "... to form a good relationship with Poland in order to fight the West." Some historians such as William Carr, Gerhard Weinberg and Ian Kershaw believes that the reason Hitler was waging war haste was that he was afraid he died first.
42 penny stamps Hitler in 1944. The term Grossdeutsches Reich (German Reich Kingdom) was first used in 1943 to refer to the expansion of German territory under his control.
Hitler concerned military offensive into Poland would create an early war against Britain. However, Hitler's foreign minister-and former Ambassador to London-Joachim von Ribbentrop ensure that neither Britain nor France would honor their commitments to Poland. Because secured such that, on 22 August 1939 Hitler ordered a military mobilization to Poland.
This plan requires the help of a secret Soviet non-aggression pact (the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact) between Germany and the Soviet Union, led by Joseph Stalin, included secret agreement cleavage Poland for both countries. In response to the newly formed pact is different from the prediction-and Ribbentrop that this action will aggravate the Anglo-Polish ties-Britain and Poland English-Polish alliance on 25 August 1939. This maneuver, along with news from Italy that Mussolini would not honor the Pact of Steel, forcing Hitler to postpone invasion of Poland from 25 August to 1 September. Hitler failed to turn Britain into a neutral position by offering a non-aggression guarantee to the British Empire on August 25, and he then instructed Ribbentrop to reveal peace plan last minute with a very short time frame in order to blame the war that will take place in Britain and the unprepared Poland.
Although nervous about the intervention of Britain, Hitler's invasion of Poland to continue the plan. On 1 September 1939, Germany invaded western Poland on the grounds its claim against the Free City of Danzig and the right to extraterritorial roads across the Polish Corridor was rejected, which was handed over Germany as the Treaty of Versailles. Respond to this action, the United Kingdom and France declared war on Germany on September 3, surprising Hitler and forced asked to Ribbentrop angrily, "Now what?" France and Britain to act according to their statement, and on 17 September, Soviet forces invaded eastern Poland.
Poland will never rise again in the form of the Treaty of Versailles. It is guaranteed not only by Germany, but also ... Russia.-Adolf Hitler, public speech in Danzig at the end of September 1939
The fall of Poland was followed by what is called a journalist a "fake war" or Sitzkrieg ("sitting war"). Gauletier Poland Hitler instructed the two newly appointed northwest, Albert Forster of Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia and Arthur Greiser of Reichsgau Wartheland, to "menjermanisasikan" their area "without question" about how. When the Polish population in the Forster area must sign a statement that they had German blood, Greiser brutal ethnic cleansing campaign against the Polish population in the region. Greiser complained Forster allowing thousands of Poles accepted as "racial" Germans thus threaten "racial purity" of Germany. Hitler refused to get involved, because I wanted to make an example of the theory of "working for the Führer": Hitler issued instructions are not clear and expect all subordinates carry out their own policies.
Other disputes arise about the methods of Himmler and Greiser, who chose the ethnic cleansing in Poland, against methods Göring and Hans Frank, Governor-General of the General Government territory of Poland, who want to transform Poland into "rice granary" Reich. On February 12, 1940, the dispute was initially done through the implementation of the method Göring-Frank, ending mass expulsions disrupt the flow of the economy. However, on May 15, 1940, Himmler wrote a memo titled "Thoughts on Handling of Foreign Residents in the East" who proposed the expulsion of the entire Jewish population of Europe into Africa and isolate Polish population to be "working class without a leader." Hitler called Himmler's memo "good and proper," and implement policies Himmler-Greiser in Poland, while ignoring and Frank Göring.
Hitler visiting Paris with architect Albert Speer (left) and sculptor Arno absorber (right), June 23, 1940
Hitler began to focus its military on Germany's western border, and in April 1940, German forces invaded Denmark and Norway. On 9 April, Hitler announced the birth of "German Reich Kingdom", that his vision of a Germanic empire nations in Europe that is united, where the Dutch, Flemish, and Scandinavian joined the government "pure race" under the leadership of Germany. In May 1940, Germany attacked France, and occupied Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and Belgium. The victory forced Mussolini to bring Italy to join Hitler on June 10. France surrendered on 22 June.
Britain, whose army was forced to leave France by sea from Dunkirk, continued to fight alongside other British colonies in the Battle of the Atlantic. Hitler offered peace to Britain's new leader, Winston Churchill, and after being rejected he ordered bombing raids to Britain. Hitler's invasion plans to the United Kingdom began with a series of air attacks in the Battle of Britain on a number of airbases and radar stations Royal Air Force (RAF) in South East England. Unfortunately, the German Luftwaffe was not able to defeat the Royal Air Force. In late October, Hitler realized that air superiority for the invasion of Britain-Operation Sea Lion-could not be achieved, then it nightly air strikes against British cities, including London, Plymouth, and Coventry.
On 27 September 1940, three Parties Pact was signed in Berlin by Saburo Kurusu of Imperial Japan, Hitler, and Italian foreign minister Ciano,  and then extended to Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria, thereby strengthening the Axis powers. Hitler efforts in integrating the former Soviet Union to block anti-British failed after the meeting between Hitler and Molotov stalemate in Berlin in November, then he asked all parties to prepare for full-scale invasion of the Soviet Union.
In the spring of 1941, the military activities in North Africa, the Balkans, and the Middle East turned Hitler from his plans for the eastern region. In February, German forces arrived in Libya to strengthen the presence of Italian troops there. In April, Hitler launched the invasion of Yugoslavia, which was soon followed by the invasion of Greece.  In May, German forces were sent to support Iraqi rebel forces fighting Britain and invaded Crete. On May 23, Hitler issued Führer Order No. 30.
Defeat and Death
On April 20, Hitler's birthday the 56th, Hitler did the last trip of the Führerbunker ("Führer's shelter") to the surface. In the garden Reichskanzlei destroyed, he pinned the Iron Cross to Hitler Youth soldiers. On 21 April, the 1st Belorussian Front led Georgy Zhukov managed to penetrate the defenses of German Army Group Vistula led by General Gotthard Heinrici Plateau at the Battle of Seelow and drove to the outskirts of Berlin. Rejecting the situation, Hitler hanging his hopes on Waffen SS troops led by General Felix Steiner, Armeeabteilung Steiner ("Army Detachment Steiner"). Hitler asked Steiner to attack the northern side of the hill and the German Ninth Army was ordered to attack northward in the form of attacks flops.
At a military conference on 22 April, Hitler questioned Steiner attacks. He was told that the attack had never been launched and Russian troops entered Berlin. The answer is forcing Hitler to ask everyone except Wilhelm Keitel, Alfred Jodl, Hans Krebs, Wilhelm Burgdorf, and then exit ruangan.Hitler massive angry over the betrayal and incompetence of the commanders who ended with a statement for the first time-that the Germans lost the war. Hitler announced that he would remain in Berlin until the war ended, then committed suicide.
On 23 April, the Red Army surrounded the entire Berlin and Goebbels made a statement asking citizens participate defend Berlin. On that day also, Göring sent a telegram from Berchtesgaden which contains the idea that because Hitler was isolated in Berlin, he, Göring, should take over the German government. Göring set a time limit, the passing of which he considered Hitler to power again. Hitler responded by holding Göring and in his will written 29 April, Hitler declared Göring dismissed from all government positions he held. On 28 April, Hitler learned that Himmler, who left Berlin on 20 April, was trying to discuss surrender to the Western Allies. He ordered Himmler was arrested and Hermann Fegelein (Himmler's SS representative at Hitler's headquarters in Berlin) is executed.
After midnight 29 April, Hitler married Eva Braun in a small wedding ceremony in a map in the Führerbunker. After a simple breakfast with his new wife, secretary Traudl Junge he brought to another room and dictated the testament and last words. This event was witnessed and documents signed by Hans Krebs, Wilhelm Burgdorf, Joseph Goebbels, and Martin Bormann. That afternoon, Hitler was informed of the murder of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, which may reinforce the desire to resist arrest.
On 30 April 1945, after a fierce street fighting, when Soviet troops were one or two blocks from Reichskanzlei, Hitler and Braun committed suicide; Braun bite the cyanide capsule and Hitler shot himself. Their bodies were brought up through the emergency exit door to the rear garden Reichskanzlei bunkers that have been destroyed, and then placed in a bomb crater and doused in gasoline. The two bodies then burned bombing ambiance accompanied by the Red Army.
Berlin surrendered on 2 May. Soviet archival records released after the fall of the Soviet Union-showed that the remains of Hitler, Braun, Joseph and Magda Goebbels, the six Goebbels children, General Hans Krebs and Hitler's dogs repeatedly buried and raised. On 4 April 1970, a Soviet KGB team put on the map for detailed funeral held five wooden boxes at the SMERSH facility in Magdeburg. The remains of the box is burned, destroyed, and spread Biederitz rivers, creeks Elbe.