|Albert Einstein Biography |
Greatest Scientist In 20th Century
1. Youth and university
Einstein was born in Ulm, Württemberg, Germany, approximately 100 km east of Stuttgart. His father named Hermann Einstein, a salesman feather bed which then undergo electrochemical work, and his mother was Pauline. They were married in Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt. Their family of Jewish descent; Albert schooled in Catholic school and the mother wishes she was given violin lessons. At the age of five, his father showed him a pocket compass, and Einstein realized that something in the room that "empty" acted upon the needle; he later described his experience as one of the most evocative moment in his life. Although he made models and mechanical devices as a hobby, he is considered a slow learner, possibly due to dyslexia, shyness, or because the structure of the rare and unusual in his brain (examined after his death).
At the time little Albert Einstein look retarded because her speech is very late. Taciturn temperament and loves to play by himself. November 1981 birth sister named Maja. Until the age of seven Albert Einstein like mad and throwing things, including his brother.
Interest and passion for the field of physics appear at the age of five. When he was weak because of illness, his father presented him with a compass. Albert was fascinated by the magic of small compass, so he made up his mind to unveil the mystery surrounding the majesty and grandeur of nature.
Although quiet and does not like to play with his friends, Albert Einstein still able to do well in school. Raportnya nice and he became champion. In addition to school and wrestle science, Albert activities is playing music and a duet with her mother playing the works of Mozart and Bethoveen.
Albert spent his college years at the ETH (Technische Eidgenoessische Hochscule). At the age of 21 years Albert passed. After graduation, Albert tried to apply for a job as a teaching assistant, but was rejected. Albert finally got a temporary job as a teacher in high school. Then he got a job in the patent office in Bern. During that time he continued to develop the science of physics Albert ..
He was later given an award for his theory of relativity because this slowness, and said to think in terms of space and time from the other children, he was able to develop a more developed intellect. Other opinion, in the news lately, about his mental development is that he suffers from Asperger's syndrome, a condition associated with autism. Einstein began to study mathematics at the age of twelve. There is a rumor that he failed mathematics in his education, but this is not true; replacement assessment unnerve the following year. Two uncles helped develop interest in the intellectual world in the late childhood and early adolescence by providing suggestions and books on science and mathematics. In 1894, due to the failure of his father's electrochemical business, Einstein moved from Munich to Pavia, Italy (near Milan). Albert stayed behind to finish school, finish a semester before rejoining his family in Pavia. His failure in the liberal arts in the entrance test Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, in Zurich) in the next year is a step backwards; j him by his family sent to Aarau, Switzerland, to complete high school, where he received a diploma in 1896 , Einstein signed a couple of times in Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule. In the following year he took off his Württemberg citizenship and became not bekewarganegaraan.
In 1898, Einstein met and fell in love with Mileva Maric, a Serb who is a classmate (also a friend of Nikola Tesla). In 1900, he was awarded a degree to teach by Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule and was accepted as a Swiss citizen in 1901 negar. During this time Einstein discussed his interest in science to his close friends, including Mileva. He and Mileva had a daughter named Lieserl, born in January 1902. Lieserl, at that time, was considered illegal because the parents are not married.
2. Work and Doctorate degree
At the time of graduation Einstein could not find a teaching job, keterburuannya as a young man who easily made angry professornya. Father of a classmate helped him get a job as a technical assistant in the Swiss Patent Office examiner dalah 1902. There, Einstein inventors to assess patent applications that require pengatahuan physics tools. He also starts to realize the importance of the application rather than a bad explanation, and
learn from the director how "to explain himself properly". He is sometimes correct their design and also to evaluate the practicality of their work. Einstein married Mileva on January 6, 1903. Einstein's marriage to Mileva, a mathematician, is the personal companion and cleverness; On May 14, 1904, the couple's first child, Hans Albert Einstein, was born. In 1904, Einstein's position at the Swiss Patent Office became permanent. He earned his doctorate after submitting thesis "Eine neue Bestimmung der Moleküldimensionen" ("On a new determination of molecular dimensions") in 1905 from the University of Zürich.
Year 1905 was a year full of achievements for Albert, because this year he produced works brilliantly. Here are their works:
March: papers on the application ekipartisi the incident radiation, this paper is an introduction to the light quantum hypothesis based on Boltzmann statistics. Explanation of the photoelectric effect in this paper that gave him the Nobel prize in 1922.
April: his doctoral dissertation about the new determination of molecular sizes. Einstein earned his PhD from the University of Zurich.
|Albert Einstein Biography - Greatest Scientist In 20th Century|
May: his paper on Brownian motion.
June: Paper deals famous, namely the theory of special relativity, Annalen der Physik published under the title Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Kerper (Electrodynamics of moving objects).
September: the continuation of his paper in June that came to the conclusion termahsyurnya formula: E = mc2, that the mass of an object (m) is a measure of energy content (E). c is the speed of light in a vacuum (c >> 300 thousand kilometers per second). The masses have equality with energy, a fact which opens opportunities for the development of nuclear power projects in the future. One gram mass is thus equivalent to the energy that can supply the power needs of 3000 homes (power 900 watts) for a full year, an amount of energy is enormous
In the same year he wrote four articles that provide the foundation of modern physics, without much scientific literature that he can appoint or many colleagues in science that he could discuss the theory. Most physicists agree that three of those papers (on Brownian motion), the photoelectric effect and special relativity) deserved Nobel Prizes. But the only paper on the photoelectric effect that the award. It is an irony, not only because Einstein is far better known for relativity, but also because the photoelectric effect is a quantum phenomenon, and Einstein became free of the quantum theory. What makes these papers remarkable is that, in any case, Einstein boldly took an idea from theoretical physics to its logical consequences and managed to explain experimental results that had baffled scientists for decades. He submitted a thesis-thesis to the "Annalen der Physik". They are usually addressed to the "Annus Mirabilis Papers" (from Latin: In exceptional). Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) plans to celebrate 100 years of the publication of Einstein's work in the year 1905 as the Year of Physics 2005.
3. Brownian motion
In the first article in 1905 called "On the Motion-Required by the Molecular Kinetic Theory of Heat-of Small Particles Suspended in a Stationary Liquid", includes research on Brownian motion. Using the kinetic theory of liquids was controversial at the time, he determined that the phenomenon, which still lack a satisfactory explanation after decades setlah he first observed, provided empirical evidence (based on observation and experimentation) the reality of atoms. And also lend confidence in statistical mechanics, which at the time was also controversial. Prior to this thesis, the atom is known as a berguan concept, but physicists and chemists hotly debated whether atoms really a real thing. Einstein's statistical discussion of atomic behavior gave the experimenter a way to count atoms by looking through the ordinary microscope. Wilhelm Ostwald, a leader of the anti-atom school, later told Arnold Sommerfeld that he had converted to complete Einstein's explanation of Brownian motion.
In 1909, Albert Einstein was appointed as a professor at the University of Zurich. In 1915, he completed both his theory of relativity. The highest award for his hard work paid off with a little since she won the 1921 Nobel Prize in physics. Besides Albert also developing quantum theory and unified field theory.
In 1933, Albert and his family moved to the United States for fear of scientific activity - either as teachers or as researchers - disturbed. In 1941, he took the oath as a citizen of the United States. Because of his fame and his sincerity in helping others who need it, Albert was asked to be Israel's second president. However, this position was rejected because he did not have competence in that field. Finally, on 18 April 1955, Albert Einstein died, leaving great works that have changed the history of the world.
Nevertheless, Albert had wept bitterly in the liver due to his great work - the theory of general relativity and special - use as inspiration to create an atomic bomb. The bomb is dropped on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki during World War II took place.